Bioenergy carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
The concept of Bioenergy and Carbon Storage (BECS or Bio-CCS) has been suggested as a means of producing carbon negative power (i.e. removing carbon dioxide from the atmopshere via biomass conversion technologies and storage underground). Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is currently at a demonstration phase, and research is mainly focused on reducing the costs of capture and storage so that it can be applied to a new generation of large-scale, power stations with lower emissions. However, in the future CCS could potentially be applied to a wide range of energy plants, including those incorporating co-firing or co-gasification of sustainable biomass feedstocks. (agricultural and wood wastes and energy crops), or even 100 % biomass energy plants, biofuel production facilities or biorefineries.
The release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by human activity is caused both by extraction and combustion of fossil fuels and by clearance of forests, where large amounts of carbon are stored as biomass. Carbon sequestration through reforestation (long-term storage of carbon in plants and trees), offers potential to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Reforestation is not only about maximising the amount of carbon stored per unit of land area. For example, to protect biodiversity and preserve habitat, a mix of plant species is desirable, as opposed to monocultures. See Sustainable Forestry Initiative (US) and Sustainable Foresty and the European Union. Latest publications on CCS can be found here.
Acknowledgement: Large parts of the texts were taken from Lars Waldheim´s contribution to the report “The Contribution of Advanced Renewable Transport Fuels to Transport Decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond”