Study on Actual GHG Data for Diesel, Petrol, Kerosene and Natural Gas
In order to reach the targets set by the Renewable Energy and Fuel Quality Directives, a certain percentage of fuels used in the transport sector nowadays have to be replaced by biofuels. Sustainability issues arising from the enhanced use of biofuels and the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from their whole lifecycle have been discussed extensively; however, there is no detailed information about the actual lifecycle GHG emissions of fossil fuels consumed in the transport sector.
In many cases, lifecycle GHG emissions of biofuels are compared to the respective average emissions of oil products used as fuels in transport. In order to provide a fair and clear picture of fossil fuel GHG emissions directed to transport , more detailed data, especially throughout Europe, are needed. Therefore, the overall aim of this project is to provide information about lifecycle GHG emissions based on collection of actual data as possible.
The considerable information uncertainty endorsed to collection and elaboration of these data , as well as to the required regional/geographical specification of data might be tackled with estimations on the range of the GHG emission quantities in the for m of minimum and maximum values . Therefore, the lifecycle Carbon Intensity (CI) of petrol, diesel, kerosene and natural gas have been assessed in a “well - to - tank” (WTT) approach. In general, WTT emissions refer to those ones associated with fuel pathways from extraction up to fueling the tanks of land, sea and air transportation means. A chain of significant production stages of oil and gas, like exploration, exploitation, upgrading, transport ation , transmission, refining , distribution, dispersing etc. are considered; thus excluding the final stage of combustion in the transportation means ’ engines
Probably the most significant finding of this project is the great range of CI values depending on the fossil fuel streams supplying the EU transport sector, which is valid for both oil and gas streams.
The spread of CI WTW values of conventional (this study) are presented in parallel with the respective CI spreads of conventional and advanced biofuels (as calculated in the JEC Biofuels study) and the relevant percentages of GHG savings are calculated. More specifically, the lower CI conventional ethanol saves 71 - 78% of petrol GHG emissions depending on the min/max assessment of the CI values of petrol in this study, in parallel the calculated saving in the JEC study is 72%. Respectively, the higher CI conventional ethanol saves 47 - 59% of petrol GHG emissions and in parallel the JEC study estimates 49%. Similarly, the figures for the advanced ethanol from waste are estimated to 84 - 88% in the lower CI case and 58 - 68% in the higher CI case in relation to the results of this study. The saving figures for the JEC study are 85% and 60%. Similar estimations of saving percentages have been made for diesel oil and the relevant biofuels.
- EXERGIA S.A, in collaboration with E3M-Lab, NTU Athens and COWI A/S on behalf of EC DG ENER