Volatility and vehicle driveability performance of ethanol/gasoline blends: a literature review
Published studies on the impact of ethanol and gasoline volatility on vehicle driveability performance have also been evaluated. These included seven studies on Hot Weather Driveability (HWD) and eleven studies on Cold Weather Driveability (CWD). These studies show that modern vehicles are much less susceptible to HWD performance problems than are older vehicles. Some early model Direct Injection Spark Ignition vehicles tested by CONCAWE/GFC (2003) showed some HWD problems but only on high volatility fuels. Current specification properties appear to be adequate to control HWD but some increases in the E70 maximum limits allowed by the European EN228 gasoline specification may be needed in order to allow ethanol blending into gasoline at 10% v/v and higher.