World Biofuel Maritime Shipping Study
This study examines two maritime shipping markets; dry bulk, and liquid bulk. Dry bulk tankers commonly carry commodities such as ores and grains and are segregated by capacity; from 20-35,000 tonne Handysize, which is accessible to many ports, to the 100-300,000 tonne Capesize, which cannot even pass through the Panama Canal and only the largest seaports can handle. Large liquid bulk carriers commonly carry crude oil & LNG while smaller chemical tankers often have stainless steel or coated tanks that can handle aggressive chemicals.
Efficient seaports are often critical to enabling cost effective transportation of biomass. The most advanced ports can accommodate large ships and offer a range of facilities for handling and storage and well as excellent land transport connections; such as Rotterdam, Singapore Hamburg and Hong Kong. The least efficient ports, often nearer to biomass sources, have low port productivity and poor transportation logistics; such as in Africa and South America.